Up Close and personal with Chromosomes, Their Functions and Parts

Up Close and personal with Chromosome, Their Functions and Parts

Chromosomes are structures composed of DNA and other molecules in which genetic material is stored. The name chromosome comes from the words chroma which means color and soma which means body.

Characteristics of chromosomes

Chromosomes always consist of a pair of genes. Following are the characteristics of chromosomes:

1. Only visible when cells divide
2. Has a length of 0.2 to 20 microns
3. Chromosomes in prokaryotic cells have only one chromosome and are not located in the nucleus of the cell
4. Semi-eukaryotic chromosomes, the number varies according to the type of organism and is found in the nucleus
5. Has a chemical composition in the form of protein, DNA, and RNA.

Functions of chromosomes

Chromosomes have the following functions: 

1. Storage area for genetic material.

This will show the nature and uniqueness of each individual.

2. Determine gender.

As an example below the chromosomes that determine traits other than sex are called X and Y chromosomes. If the embryo’s chromosome is XX, then it is female. If the chromosome is XY, then he will be born a boy. 

3. Plays a role in cell division.

The chromosomes will ensure that each cell has the same genes.

Chromosomal part

Chromosomes are always paired and have the same shape. Chromosomes consist of the following parts:

Chromonema: a spiral band with thickening 

Chromomeres: thickening of the chromonema 

Centromere: the narrowest part of the chromosome and the lighter place. This section does not contain genes 

The second indentation: the site of the formation of the nucleus 

Telomere: the end of the chromosome that prevents the end of the chromosome from connecting with another chromosome.

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