Definition of Biotechnology, Product Characteristics and It Types

Have you ever heard, or, do you understand the meaning of Biotechnology? This term often appears in science or natural science lessons.

Biotechnology is consists of three Latin words, namely, bios mean life, techno means application and logos means science. Out of this, it can be concluded that biotechnology is the study of the principles of utilization or application of living things (bacteria, fungi, etc.) through modern techniques to transform raw materials through biological transformations into useful products.

Biotechnology has been found for thousands of years to produce the development products of microorganisms. The examples such as bread, cheese, beer, and others. However, over time the application of biotechnology can create various new technologies such as genetic engineering up to cloning.

characteristic features of Biotechnology Products :

A product can be called a biotechnology product if it meets certain conditions.

First, in the process of making a product, it must involve science that relates to or support biotechnology, such as microbiology, food technology engineering, or molecular biology.

Second, the product must use the assistance of living things such as bacteria, fungi, animals, and plants in the manufacturing process.

Types of Biotechnology

  1. Conventional Biotechnology

Conventional biotechnology is biotechnology that uses microorganisms to change the shape or nutritional content of certain products, such as enzyme content.

Generally, conventional biotechnology is used to produce food.

characteristics of Conventional biotechnology :

  • The utilization process uses living things directly
  • Technology (equipment and techniques) that used is simple

Examples of conventional biotechnology: Making tempeh with Rhizopus oryzae, making soy sauce with Aspergillus wentii.

  1. Modern Biotechnology

Modern biotechnology began to develop when the structure and function of DNA were discovered. In its use, microbes are only used as agents but using modern tools and techniques.

characteristics of Modern Biotechnology :

Only use part of the microorganism (DNA or enzymes)

Utilization of microorganisms accompanied by modern technology.


Examples of modern biotechnology: Transgenic plants that have high resistance to pests, IVF where the fertilization process of sperm and egg cells is done artificially.


Along with the development of biotechnology, How it has been used is increasingly diverse. For example in agriculture, biotechnology is used for tissue culture.

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